History of Emergency Management and the
Emergency Management Association of Tennessee con't
EDITOR’S NOTE: Although potentially confusing due to changes of the EMAT fiscal year, the period of service in office effectively runs from the end of the conference in one year (usually in September-October) until the following conference when a new president is elected. The period of service is one year from 1985 to 2014, but in 2015, the period of service for the president (and officers) was changed to two years.
In 1985 Mike Thompson of Williamson County became the association’s first elected president. The first year of office was marked with dissension due to the membership’s divisions over whether civil defense or emergency management should be the focus of EMAT efforts. President Thompson was challenged to bring the membership together.
Tennessee led the federal government is moving towards the all-hazard, integrated approach to emergency management. Programs were developed to assist local governments in developing emergency management plans and capabilities. This included a full-blown training program, and the development of the first, truly-integrated emergency plan for the state. This plan was known as the Tennessee Emergency Management Plan, or TEMP. The 1986 document became the basis for all emergency management plans and programs with the state and this remains the case today.
Alan Hall of Montgomery County served as EMAT president in 1986-1987.
We are not certain who the president was in 1987 after President Alan Hall. Considerable discussion has surrounded this vacancy with suggestions that Hal Monck (former TCDA president), Mike Thompson (second term) or others may have been in the position, but no evidence (or association minutes) has survived to confirm these thoughts or to positively select one over the other. A search continues for the history from this period to confirm the memories we have.
Billy Barrett served as president sometime in the '80s, perhaps 1988. Aaron Womble served as president in the ’80s, perhaps 1989.
Ed Ellington served as president in 1990.
John Parsons served as president in 1991.
Natural disasters became more prevalent and began to attract much more intense media interest. Major hurricanes such as Hurricane Hugo and earthquakes such as those in Loma Prieta focused attention on the shortcomings in federal assistance to state and local governments. The overwhelming scope of these events focused attention on the need for a federal "response" role - a concept foreign to the recovery role that FEMA had long played. FEMA began work on a Federal Response Plan for a Catastrophic Earthquake in California. Over time this would evolve into a full-fledged, national government response plan known simply as the Federal Response Plan, or FRP. Unfortunately, the FRP had not been implemented prior to the landfall of Hurricane Andrew in 1992. The federal response to this event, perhaps more than any other, focused attention on the need for FEMA to "reinvent" itself.
Dan Vaughn served as president in 1992.
Bill Travis served as president in 1993.
It is uncertain who served as president from 1994 to 1995.
In 1995 Joel Vincent of Hamilton County served as president.
In 1996 Steven R. Jones served as president. President Jones pushed for K-9 standards and getting the CEMP program going. He was involved in exploring a surcharge on insurance policies in order to help fund EMA programs.
Warren J. Vaughn served as president in 1997.
Nancy McGill of the American Red Cross was EMAT president in 1998.
In 1999 James Medling became president and went on to serve 18 months.
In the late 90’s it began to become obvious that weather patterns were changing worldwide, made particularly evident by the increase in the number of hurricanes and cyclones. The melting of significant percentages of the polar caps began to alter the heat index of the planet, causing fluctuations of weather and altering the delineation between desert and savannah. By the year 2009 Australia had begun to suffer significant drought drying up major portions of the southeast and bankrupting farmers. Tornadoes began to rake the south in a new tornado alley to rival in deaths the traditional one in the plains states.
In 2000 Steven R. Manley served as president.
In 2001 Mike Hall of Lincoln County was president and served for 18 months.
In 2002 Tyler Smith of Putnam County took the presidency.
Jackie Wilkerson was president from 2002-2003. Under President Wilkerson, EMAT began to make serious inroads toward improving the professionalism of emergency management. Training was presented during the Association’s conferences that dramatically improved the knowledge of responders and helped attendees to understand the complexities of coordinating all of the different response elements. In 2004 a strong effort was undertaken to establish recognition of long-term experience and education in the emergency management field. EMAT began to review and recognize certified emergency management professionals (CEMP) as the highest level and lower levels as emergency manager I and II categories of expertise.
In 2004 R. L. Douglas of Robertson County became president.
In the August 2005 meeting President R. L. Douglas presided over an election that elected Roger Allen as President-Elect, Mike George as West Tennessee vice president, Mark Blackwood as Middle Tennessee vice president and Howie Rose as East Tennessee vice president.
In October 2005 Edwin Hogan of Cheatham County assumed charge as President and R. L. Douglas became the Past President. President Hogan proposed an incentive to pay emergency managers in each county. Ms. Diane Pryor of TEMA stated that TEMA is teaching more CEM classes and that a new brochure is available for the CEM program. In November President Hogan approved a vote to require denied applications to re-submit and pay again after one year. President Hogan proposed to meet with General Bassham, TEMA Director after TEMA makes it move to its new facilities. Projected completion date for the SEOC renovation is May 2006.
In January 2006 Incoming President (or President-Elect) Roger Allen presided in the absence of the president and proposed that more study be placed on the EM incentive legislation. Ms. Diane Pryor reported that the hard drive for the EMAT computer had failed and needs to be replaced. President-Elect Allen wanted to clean out old EMAT records on hand that are not needed. Ms. Pryor reported that TEMA Operations had moved to Foster Avenue.
In May 2006, President Hogan received reports regarding severe weather in various counties: Dyer County was hit by a tornado destroying 100 homes, damaging 225 and doing $15-16 million worth of damage. There were 16 fatalities and a lot of livestock had been killed. Gibson County was hit by two tornadoes causing $20 million in damage, 8 fatalities and 50 hurt across 4 communities. A micro-burst came through 22 days after the tornadoes although there was no report of the damages. Lincoln County reported seeing seven funnel clouds but reported none had touched down. President Edwin Hogan reported that Director Bassham had agreed to speak to the Governor’s Office about support for the LEMD incentive bill. President-Elect Roger Allen stated that he had received three applications for CEMP.
In June 2006 President Hogan noted that General Bassham was planning on recognizing one special company that offered emergency help during the tornadoes of January. Applications were being received for recognition. Also that year, an announcement was made that Kirt Pickering, PIO of TEMA, had left the agency and Executive Officer Donnie Smith was appointed as temporary TEMA PIO. He served in the aftermath of the federal disasters caused by West Tennessee tornadoes and through the FEMA JFO operation in Jackson, Tennessee.
In July President Hogan noted that the recognition for offering emergency help during the tornadoes of January would be Bristol Motor Speedway. The new PIO for TEMA, Jeremy Heidt, was announced.
In August 2006 President Edwin Hogan approved a vote to present the EMAT Achievement Award to Jerrel Reasons, Crockett County EMA director, who is retiring.
In September 2006 President Edwin Hogan supervised the election of new vice presidents from the three regions: Janice Newman (Carroll County EMA) for West; Kathy Hovis (Lincoln County EMA) for Middle and Paul Putnam (Bledsoe County EMA) for East. Rickey Graves (Gibson County EMA) was nominated as President-Elect.
President Roger Allen of Rutherford County presided over the meeting in November 2006 and approved Mr. Bill Cooper to take Diane Pryor’s place as TEMA representative to the Executive Board. President Allen explained that the last conference cost $120,000, leaving $30-35,000 in the bank. Past President Hogan suggested that the President speak to General Basshamabout the proposed LEMD incentive.
In January 2007 President Allen discussed the open positions on the Executive Board and asked for nominations. President Allen wanted to focus on getting law enforcement, emergency medical service and fire department personnel involved in the association’s board positions, not just emergency management directors. A strong discussion evolved regarding what membership and volunteer leadership do for a person. The discussion ended with a comment that Homeland Security is dictating to local government and no one has time to do anything else. A complaint was heard from two persons in Lincoln County who had applied for CEMP in April of 2006 and have not heard anything. President Allen stated that this was his fault since he could not get commitment from CEMP committee members to meet for consideration. Past President Edwin Hall said he had the same problem when he was President. He wanted to either do the program right or forget about it. Mr. Hall suggested that the board change who is to approve applications. A discussion evolved to put a time limit on each action and change the by-laws for CEMP. A vote was approved to revise program to ensure applications are reviewed and approved in a timely manner. Discussion continued afterward to involve TEMA in the process. Bill Cooper stated that TEMA may not be able to provide financial support to the conference this year and to look at another source. He proposed a number of different projects that could raise money. Some discussion evolved about holding a conference in Memphis in order to obtain EMAT support funding from Shelby County. President Allen reconfirmed a vote to allow the K-9 Handlers to remain a member of the association in return for donation of time and maintenance of animals.
In February 2007 President Allen indicated his concern with non-attending board members and to determine whether they wanted to continue to serve. A discussion evolved to set some standards for attendance for the Executive Board. Discrepancies on the CEMP Review Board were then discussed and whether a CEMP checklist is needed. President Allen complimented Past-President Hogan for sending out nice letters to explain why applications were being denied. This brought a discussion regarding how many applications were backlogged. The report was that three applications were backlogged for over a year. The inference in the discussion was that the delay was in the TEMA Regions where the director did not act on approval. DirectorBassham was brought into the review to ensure timely participation. Adding an evaluator to the checklist was also discussed. Discussion then moved to EMAT member insurance benefit, to means of raising money through donation projects, to trust fund legislation, to EM community leadership and a TEMA speakers’ bureau. A report was received on TEMA involvement with Walmart, Federal Express, Home Depot, Bell South and so on. A report was received on a joint meeting with Kentucky and Tennessee regarding Wolfe Creek Dam.
In March 2007 President Roger Allen briefed the proposed legislation regarding the elimination of blue lights from emergency management vehicles. Discussion then moved to handgun restrictions and the statutory base amount for the LEMD incentive. President Allen requested the board to be alert and brief the leadership on anything that affects emergency management. Discussion then centered on the fire department proposal to enhance standards of training. This would conceivably require Rookie School and Live Burn training after 10 years of phase-in. President Allen indicated that he wanted to add 12 new members to EMAT this year from the Special Operations Response Team and the Paramedics. Mr. Allen noted that some EMA directors were not members of EMAT. A vote was approved to request the vice-presidents to sponsor a recruiting drive for membership in their region. Vice President Kathy Hovis noted that Lincoln County is not happy with EMAT due to the length of time it has taken for EMAT to consider their applications for CEMP. Mr. Allen thought the delay had been fixed, but discussion moved to eliminate TEMA from the review process. Past President Hall asked if the Executive Board needs to suspend the CEMP program until the process can be fixed. President Allen did not want to do this and suggested that another effort be made to repair the delay in TEMA. Discussion then moved to NIMS and its implementation to be discussed at the conference.
In April 2007 President-Elect Rickey Graves, acting in the absence of the President, presided to discuss an update of the movement on the EMAT LEMD incentive. Sponsorship of events was discussed and a discussion of scholarships ensued. Mr. Graves led the discussion to the next steps required to move the EMAT incentive and suggested appointing a legislative sub-committee. President-Elect Graves reconfirmed that the final decision on CEMP approvals rests with the President-Elect and approved James Williams, TEMA, as an EM-1 and the rest of the applications were approved for what they applied for.
In May 2007 President Roger Allen gave an update on legislation pending in the General Assembly affecting emergency management. President Allen approved a vote to create a legislative committee to encourage action on the EMAT incentive bill. President Allen gave an update on CEMP certificates and how they should be presented. Mailing a certificate immediately and then presenting a framed certificate with a pin would be performed at the conference. The President also agreed that an expiration date needs to be added to the certificate. Discussion also followed on developing a card to carry after a person has been made a CEMP or other level. A vote followed and was approved. A vote was proposed and carried to eliminate associate memberships since it is so hard to determine who are members on the floor during a vote. President Allen appointed Mr. Eugene Nichols (Bedford County EMA director) to chairmanship of the Membership Committee. A suggestion was made and passed into motion that a memorial should be prepared for Deputy Director Eddie Boatwright, TEMA who at that time was terminally ill with pancreatic cancer.
In June 2007 President Roger Allen gave another update on legislation pending in the General Assembly and briefed the Attorney General’s opinion regarding emergency management using red lights instead of blue since EM is not law enforcement.
In July 2007 the Executive Board met with Roger Allen (of Rutherford County) as President and determined to begin a process for making the association a 501(c)(3) program, tax-deductible. In October the association’s net worth was reported to be over $50,000.
The conference of 2007 saw the election of Ricky Graves of Gibson County as President. President Graves requested and received TEMA support of funding for EMAT and its training and to begin the effort to establish standards for state funding of full-time local directors.
In April 2008 President Ricky Graves announced that TEMA had provided $60,000 for catastrophic training for EMAT members. In May Director Bassham announced severe travel restraints had been imposed on state agencies, but funding for training would be provided, although now the funds would come from Central United States Earthquake Consortium (CUSEC). In September a vote was passed to create the Lacey Suitor Award. A proposal was made to extend the President’s term to two years, but President Graves indicated that he did not intend to serve a full second term.
President Graves was a close partner with TEMA during his time as president and, in cooperation with Director James Bassham of TEMA through the project officer, Executive Officer Donnie Smith, established the groundwork for a new law that was adopted to professionalize emergency management directors in Tennessee. The law was sponsored by State Representative Curtis Halford and became TCA 52-2-133, requiring appointees to meet certain educational standards or become qualified within two years. This was a significant step forward since many previous directors were appointed based upon political reasons and were unqualified for the position.
In October of 2008, Janice Newman (of Carroll County) was elected President-Elect. She did not participate as an officer for a large portion of her appointment due to her later decision to run for county court clerk. Incoming president Jody Zorsch presided over many meetings in the latter months of her term. The 2010 Conference was held in Chattanooga.
By 2008 the association had adopted a nine-point purpose statement in its Constitution and By-Laws that emphasized providing a professional association for planning, mitigation, response and recovery from natural and man-made disasters, an association to liaison with local, state and federal governments and agencies in order to promote a harmonious emergency management program, an association to promote channels of communication and mutual aid between political subdivisions, an association to encourage, support and assist industry in the emergency management effort, an association to support educational and training programs to increase efficiency and capability of people, an association to increase the awareness of the public and especially persons in positions of responsibility, an association to coordinate the efforts of its members in protecting lives and property and preserve the national security, an association to evaluate and disseminate experiences, judgments and actions of emergency management specialists, and finally, an association to form a closer relationship with emergency response personnel throughout the state and serve as a clearinghouse for ideas and suggestions. Officers serve for only one year and consist of a President (at-large), a President-Elect, a Secretary/ Treasurer and three Vice-Presidents, one from each region conforming to TEMA’s districts (or regions). At the end of a term, the President-Elect becomes the President. The Secretary/Treasurer is appointed by the President. When a vacancy is created in the President’s position, the President-Elect shall fill it; when a vacancy occurs in the President-Elect, the Executive Committee will elect one of the vice-presidents; and a vacancy of the Secretary/Treasurer or a vice-president will be filled by appointment of the President. The President-Elect performs the duties determined by the President and will chair the Certified Emergency Management Professional (CEMP) Committee. Other standing committees were formed, to include the Awards and Nominations Committee (chaired by a past president), Conference Site Committee, Constitution and By-Laws Committee, Legislative Committee, Membership Committee, Public Relations Committee, Training and Education Committee and CEMP Committee. Each chairman was to serve a year. Two individual awards are established, the Bill Hyder Award, that recognizes key management of a local or state government or senior manager of emergency preparedness in industry and EMAT Achievement Award for excellence in job performance. Two media awards are established, one for print media, the other for broadcast media, for a truly outstanding job in assisting local emergency management activities. An EMAT Business and Industry Recognition Award was established for companies or their employees who support emergency management.
In November 2009 former President Graves asked for an EMA Day on Capitol Hill. In December Immediate Past President Graves requested information on the process of preparing a bill for legislation so the EMAT Family Disaster Protection Act could be proposed. TEMA Executive Officer Donnie Smith announced the roll-out date as January 5, 2009 for activation of the Tier II report E-Plan system. Immediate Past President Graves proposed to re-energize the CEMP program and in concert with TEMA (Donnie Smith) established new standards for education and evaluation. TEMA became closely involved with the evaluation process and performed much of the work to maintain the program. He encouraged TEMA to begin a database to track this training and director education began to be tracked by the state. TEMA began to certify CEMP through its Training Directorate and to issue certificates.
Tera Simmons, the Secretary, submitted her resignation but agreed to transition for 2-3 months.
The 2010 Conference was held in Chattanooga.
In 2010, Jody Zorsch of Morgan County became President. The 2011 Conference was held in Murfreesboro.
In 2011, Bill Brown of Greene County became President. Due to medical reasons, Jimmy Floyd, the Incoming President, presided over most meetings during 2012. The 2012 Conference was held in Sevier County.
In 2012, Jimmy Floyd of Coffee County became President and moved to Madison County while serving. The 2013 Conference was held in Jackson. The Jackson conference saved a great deal of money in Madison County and helped the association to stabilize fiscally. Janet Kelley of Hickman County was appointed Secretary.
In 2013. Tony Reavley of Hamilton County became President. President Reavley enhanced the process of conference management and pressed for other means of fiscal support for the association, especially vendors and corporate sponsors.
Secretary Janet Kelley resigned and Donnie Smith, retiring executive officer of TEMA and resident in Rutherford County, was appointed as Secretary.
TEMA PIO Jeremy Heidt left TEMA in July and Executive Officer Dean Flener picked up his duties, to include interface with EMAT. The EMAT Conference in 2014 was held in Nashville at the Maxwell House Hotel.
In the 2014 conference, John Mathews of Sevier County became President. President Mathews proposed a change of name for the EMAT Executive Board to become the EMAT Board of Directors, and proposed to extend the term of the President by one year. President Mathews took action to improve many procedures of the association and improved its efficiency significantly. Upon appointment President Mathews immediately held a meeting under the concepts of Total Quality Management that captured many board directors thoughts on what the goals should be for the coming year and after the barnstorming session collected these into 9 points of emphasis, each of which was provided a committee chairman (chairperson):
Membership Committee -
Develop a map of the state to show EM Directors who belong to EMAT
Push for 100% county EMPG membership
Strategic Planning (Long Range Planning) Committee -
Develop a program of instruction for new EM Directors (EMD 101)
Develop a program of instruction for county PIO’s
Finance, Ways & Means Committee -
Prepare a budget that shows the conference supporting itself
Standards, Training & CEMP Committee -
Develop a training plan for regional training (by May)
Prepare to train new directors in EMD 101 (by July)
Historical Committee -
Relocate existing EMAT records, office equipment, records, furniture and plaques to the new EMAT office in TEMA
Acquire a computer, network line and keys to the EMAT office
Create the EMAT President’s Roll of Honor Plaque in TEMA and locate it in the EMAT office within TEMA
Prepare a list of past Hyder Award recipients (back to 2012)
Awards & Nominations Committee -
Develop a protocol for presentation of EMAT awards
Develop a plan to take CEMP recipients’ photos
Utilize the EMAT PIO to distribute award information to the media
Develop a new EMAT Service Award for directors
Conference Committee -
Announce the Conference theme early (by January)
Submit earlier invitations to the vendors for better attendance
Develop a 2016 Conference neutral balanced budget (by January)
Prepare a request for proposal for the 2017 conference (by March)
Announce a date and location for the 2017 conference (by July)
Develop a “Pass the Gavel” process (before the conference)
Review 2015 membership surveys (before the conference)
Constitution & By-Laws Committee -
Be prepared to develop changes presented by the board
Write new by-laws and place them on-line (web site)
Legislative Committee -
Set a date for EMAT Day on the Hill (Third week in February)
Promote EMAT Day on the Hill to achieve 25 or more attendees
Coordinate a room at the Legislative Plaza for EM directors to meet for EMAT Day on the Hill
Prepare handouts and props as necessary
Amend TCA to define “first responders”
Obtain bill sponsors (Done: Senator Janice Boling/Representative Curtis Halford)
Consider the impact of drones and whether further guidance is required
Determine the feasibility of a fulltime executive director by 2018
President Mathews changed the EMAT fiscal year to January 1 through December 31 to create a Strategic Planning Committee with a Five Year Calendar, he deleted the VOAD committee (already represented in TEMA), and created a Historical Committee (to improve implementation of programs) which was confirmed by vote of the membership at the 2015 conference.
With the approval of the membership body, the years of service change went into effect immediately and extended President Mathews’ time in office into 2016. The 2016 platform was essentially an extension of the original 2015 platform, but with the re-focus of emphasis on passing legislation to enhance responder benefits.
Since the bill in its original form failed, great effort was placed upon its passage to define “emergency management first responders,” and a benefit of $25,000 was attached to the bill for the families of emergency responders who were killed in an emergency. The cost, although not large by state budgetary standards, eventually saw the bill pigeon-holed after having been approved by the House and Senate.
This political weakness became a catalyst for the president to push for a joint effort with the Tennessee County Services Association, which includes mayors, county commissioners and county road superintendents, to pursue a stronger information program to the legislature, the public and other influential officials. The “merger” was a test to determine if it would help the EMAT association in serving the public and enhance the stature of emergency management.
President Mathews pointed out that affiliating with the TCSA did more than any other action to make the EMAT an influential organization that could change emergency management law and policy. No longer was emergency management quiescent in its approach to serving the citizens of Tennessee. The economical step of spending $15,000 per year to support the joint executive director also prevented the jarring prospect of paying for a fulltime EMAT executive director and center for accurate disaster information.
President Mac Purdy (of the Williamson County Emergency Management Agency) assumed the gavel in the November conference (2016). He began to provide immediate new visions regarding the functions of the Board of Directors.
President Purdy said his vision of how the board meetings should be formed in the future is for each committee to meet prior to the main board and develop their reports. These reports would be presented to the primary board membership, which would then approve or alter the recommendations received. This concept required the 9 permanent committees and 2 temporary committees to be present and active to get anything accomplished.
President Purdy announced that his goals for this term are to get all 95 county directors, plus one stakeholder from each county, into the membership rolls of the association; achieve vendor growth; work on training content in the conference, developing 10 or more breakouts for attendees to select from; and to update the strategic plan to include 3-5 years out for geographic locations for the conference.
President Purdy said he wanted to focus on a joint training conference with topics on search and rescue/urban search and rescue, on hazardous materials, incident management, and professional development. He wants a Private Sector Committee, an approved internship program, EMAT presence at other conferences, academic and practitioner collusion and an invitation for other association representation at the EMAT conference, in effect, establishing a joint preparedness summit. He stated that he wants to update the CEMP/CEM (certified emergency management program) certificate and the background requirements and issued a challenge to all board members to become CEMP qualified. He also wants a challenge to go out to all TEMA members for CEMP qualification.
As a continued part of his vision, he wanted to achieve full state funding for a fulltime county director in every county and to permanently include this in state law and institutionalize annual funding in the state budget. He wants to de-link the EMPG (FEMA emergency management program grant) program from funding salary requirements and free the program to fund annually selected emergency management projects essential to the county. This fits with his concept to attain 95 fulltime emergency management directors, to fund county programs through disaster recovery funds and day-to-day state funding, and to schedule a baseline EMAP (FEMA-recognized emergency management assistance program) assessment for all 95 county programs in the state.
The decision to associate with the Tennessee County Services Association (TCSA) produced its first measurable success with the passage of the bill that legally defines a first responder and includes the emergency management personnel in the county as first responders. The bill morphed into a series of better protections, but in its final form provided the original $25,000 death benefit for any family of a first responder killed while on duty. The Deputy Governor promised to include the amount in the Governor’s budget, and this assured the bill its passage and retention. The bill’s sponsors were Representative Curtis Halford and Senator Charles Sargent. This was a small step, but with the active support of the TCSA executive director, David Connor, along with Board of Directors personal visits to legislators, this success gave emergency managers a hope of better things to come.
In 2018 President Brian Gard (Emergency Management Director, University of Tennessee-Knoxville/Knox County) became president.
In his introductory message to the board, President Gard said the board must be efficient and effective. The board must push the work into the committees who will in turn coordinate with the board. The chairmen should select the members of their committee and report them to the president. He encouraged each committee chairman to have goals, progress and meeting dates at least quarterly and to report these to the board. He said when there is a conflict with a holiday, the board meeting date will be bumped to the net Thursday. He said he plans to update the Five Year Plan.
He announced a priority change for the association to pursue improvement of the professionalism of emergency management in the state, improve the membership base and diversity, be an advocate for emergency preparedness initiatives, and focus on comprehensive state-wide impact.
He wants to take the EMAT Association from a good organization to a transformational organization. He said he wants membership and outreach to be involved in engagement and diversity. He said emergency management professionalism should focus on identity, credentials, appointment criteria, funding and legislation. He said the conference committee should focus on the core tasks.
President Gard said he believes the EMAT mission is all inclusive and intends to create a private sector committee. He closed by saying that a strong state emergency management association helps the local emergency management agencies.
NOTE: This summary is a work in progress and will be updated as minutes are provided to support the summary. Please send any recommended changes to firstname.lastname@example.org.
EMAT Executive Board minutes, August 2005 to April 2008.
EMAT Executive Board minutes, 2009-2014.
EMAT Board of Directors minutes, January 2015 to present.
Civil Defense Bulletin, Series 82-8/23, Federal Emergency Management Agency,
SUBJECT: Status of FY-83 Appropriations, (also found in TEMA Newsletter, March 1983).
TEMA Newsletter, September 1982
TEMA Newsletter, September-October 1985
TEMA Hazardous Materials Oversight Operations Guide, p.1, December 1, 2008.